c) What Wikipedia thinks

Conduct disorder

 Spinrad, Tracy, and Cynthia Stifter. “Toddlers’ Empathy-Related Responding to Distress: Predictions from Negative Emotionality and Maternal Behavior in Infancy.” Infancy 10(2), 97-121, n.d. Web

Single parent

According to David Blankenhorn,[20] Patrick Fagan,[21] Mitch Pearlstein[22] David Popenoe[23] and Barbara Dafoe Whitehead[24], living in a single parent family is strongly correlated with school failure and problems of delinquency, drug use, teenage pregnancies, poverty, and welfare dependency in the United States. Using multilevel modeling, Suet-Ling Pong has shown that a high proportion of American children from single parent families perform poorly on mathematics and reading achievement tests.[25][26]

Juvenile delinquency

Children resulting from unintended pregnancies are more likely to exhibit delinquent behavior.[18] They also have lower mother-child relationship quality.[19]

Unintended pregnancy

Children whose births were unintended are:

    • Greater likelihood of low birth weight, particularly for unwanted pregnancies.[5][18] This may be through increased risk of preterm delivery.[5] In the US, eliminating all unwanted pregnancies would reduce rate of low birth weight by 7% for blacks, and 4% for whites, helping to decrease the large disparity in rates for whites vs. blacks.[5]
    • Greater infant mortality.[5][18] If all sexually active couples in the US had routinely used effective contraception in 1980, there would have been 1 million fewer abortions, 340,000 fewer live births that were unintended at conception, 5,000 fewer infant deaths, and the infant mortality rate would have been 10% lower.[5]
    • Likely to be less mentally and physically healthy during childhood.[19]
    • At higher risk of child abuse and neglect.[5][20]
    • Less likely to succeed in school,[21]
    • More likely to live in poverty and need public assistance.[21]
    • More likely to have delinquent and criminal behavior.[21] (see also legalized abortion and crime effect)
    • Significantly lower test scores[17]
    • Less likely to have a close relationship with their mother.[17]


A family’s social class plays a large role in the opportunities and resources that will be available to a child. Working-class children often grow up at a disadvantage with the schooling, communities, and level of parental attention available compared to middle-class or upper-class[citation needed]. Also, lower working-class families do not get the kind of networking that the middle and upper classes do through helpful family members, friends, and community individuals or groups as well as various professionals or experts.[11]

Children of uninvolved parents suffer in social competenceacademic performancepsychosocial development and problem behavior.